In Ingolstadt, hourly measurements of wind speed and direction over multiple decades are available from a nearby DWD weather station. From this data, representative wind statistics were derived and used as inflow boundary condition for a neutral atmospheric boundary layer simulation using the LES (Large Eddy Simulation) mode of the PALM-4U software.
The goal of the simulations was to qualitatively estimate flight conditions of an eVTOL (electrical Vertical Take-Off and Landing) aircraft during takeoff and landing on the planned Vertiport location on the rooftop of the Ingolstadt main train station. Turbulence criteria such as turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and the vertical turbulent momentum flux of the flow were evaluated in the boundary layer and along three possible flight paths. Also, the momenta of the flow on the aircraft itself, i.e., pitch, roll and yaw, were estimated.
Overall, typical structures of mechanical airflow were observed in the results. Wakes and recirculating flows could be seen behind buildings, turbulence was prevalent around buildings and edges, but only in the lowermost 50 – 60m. Barring possible convective air movements (which were not simulated in this project), little to no turbulent structures traveled upwards, and flight conditions in neutral atmospheric settings were deemed “safe” after reaching that height.